Of all the calories that we consume, how many are absorbed / used? Are some wasted/lost?

In nutrition we often think in terms of calories in, calories out, which assumes that all the calories that we consume are absorbed, and then they are either exploited or stored in form of fatty. Any excess calories exhausted end up in our overweight stores.

But is it actually so?

Are there parts of food that aren’t even properly accepted and that end up in our turd, squandered, unused?( I am not referring to fiber that’s indigestible by deafault, but to things like other carbs, protein and fatty)

Perhaps we can also breath out some calories. We all know that after boozing our gulp odors of booze … well this is alcohol being expired … the alcohol lost through breath can’t be used for energy , nor collected as overweight, it’s simply consumed calories.

Likewise, on keto diet, people can experience keto breath, where you breath out ketones before they are used. I am wondering what capacity of ketones is lost in that route and how much does it contribute to efficiency of keto diets…

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